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Production

Production

Spline forming machines STI 

 

 

 Purpose

 Materials

 Plastic formation advantages

 Technical parameters  

Products made with a spline forming machine

 Gallery  


 Purpose

Spline forming machine STI serves the purpose of cold forming involute and parallel splines on shafts used in all industries.

The machine is equipped with Siemens control unit as standard.

The machine can be used either as a stand-alone unit with manual loading or as a unit integrated into production lines with automated loading.

We offer a custom choice of various brands for the control units, hydraulic and lubrication systems that we install in our machines. The machinery can be set in a cabinet casing to diminish noise.

 Materials

The cold formation method allows to process all types of structural steel with tensile strength up to 1200 N/sq.mm. and liquid limit of more than 10%. At greater values tool wear is increasing.

 Plastic formation advantages

Numerous research and experience have proved surface plastic formation to be the most advanced method of spline formation on shafts and in openings thanks to the high efficiency of steel processing, low roughness of surface, improvement of other characteristics of parts. Pulse cold formation is one of the kinds of this method.

The essence of this method is represented by rollers press-forming involute or triangular tooth profile while the whole job is divided into numerous tiny steps. In other words, cold formation is based on a very simple and universal core principle which is the process of cold plastic formation spreading all over the affected cylinder zone. This all makes it possible to achieve high shaping factors with relatively low efforts, and thus to make parts with high size accuracy.

Please find below the picture showing the method of cold forming splines on solid material.

Picture 1. Cold plastic formation method

Spline forming machine STI 1927 

 

           Before processing                                                      After processing

The rollers are shaped according to the tooth profile, which makes it possible to form any type of profile.

Two rollers (2) placed against each other and rotating in a planetary way towards each other hit the part (1) symmetrically from the opposite sides and at very short intervals (in pulses). The link between the rollers and the part is observed either mechanically or electronically so that every next contact between the tool and the part is made right in the specified plastic formation area, e.g. in the groove of a spline. At the same time, the part is being shifted along the axis S, which makes it possible to spread the process of cold plastic formation evenly all over the length of the processed area.

Easy-to-use machines can be fit into production lines and operate both in automatic and semi-automatic modes. Short time required for re-adjustment allows to use machines universally processing several types of parts in one shift. Short time required for a part to be processed is the perfect condition for efficient operation of machines even at low loading rates, e.g. it takes only a minute to process a splined shaft 65mm in diameter, with module of 2.5mm, 24 splines with the length of 120mm).

As a matter of fact, one can process any cylinder-shaped or cone-shaped part at equal steps and either with an even or odd number of splines. Splines with modules up to 5mm can take involute or triangular shape.

Rigid construction of the machines accounts for their reliable operation at minimum expenses for maintenance.

Cold spline formation machines are extensively used by nearly every major automotive brand in the world, including such manufacturers of commercial and passenger cars, agricultural vehicles, lorries, tractors, combines, hinged shafts as Daimler-Chrysler, VW, Getrad-Ford-Transmissions, ZF, Kamaz, VAZ, MAZ, MTZ, etc.

The table below compares the efficiency of cold formation machines with traditional milling equipment.

 

Table 1.

Lorry part - Details

Gearing - Details

Processing time

Milling method

Cold formation method

External camshaft

2,5 mm module
20 splines

5,8 min

1,2 min

Front axle journal

2 mm module
46 splines

5,7 min

1,5 min

Front brake camshaft

1,9 mm module
31 splines

3,2 min

0,7 min

Half-axle

1,25 mm module
40 splines

15,8 min

2,8 min

Drive shaft

2 mm module
31 splines

6,6 min

1,3 min

Flange shaft

2 mm module
26 splines

9,2 min

1,2 min

Rear brake camshaft

1,9 mm module
19 splines

3,5 min

0,8 min


Rear bridge body

2 mm module
42 splines

6,2 min

1,9 min

Steering arm

Cone shaped
36 splines

5,2 min

0,6

Planetary wheels

4,1 mm module
18 splines


0,4 min

Steering screw

2 mm module
14 splines

19,2 min

2,6 min

Total processing time for all parts


365,3 min

62,4 min


Tractor part - Details

Gearing - Details

Processing time

Milling method

Cold formation method

Crank shaft

1,5 mm module
36 splines

5,4 min

1,2 min

Driving shaft

2 mm module
22 splines
24 splines

4,9 min
6,1 min

1,0 min
1,2 min

Driving shaft

2 mm module
24 splines
24 splines

5,0 min
4,4 min

0,8 min
0,8 min

Driving journal shaft

2 mm module
24 splines

6,8 min

1,1 min

Shaft with journal

2 mm module
24 splines

15,5 min

2,2 min

Shaft with coupling

2 mm module
18 splines

3,8 min

0,9 min

Driving shaft of mower

1,75 mm module
18 splines

4,0 min
10,2 min

0,8 min
1,5 min

Running shaft

1,25 mm module
40 splines
44 splines

4,5 min
5,4 min

0,9 min
1,1 min

Wheel axle

2,1 mm module
30 splines

10,2 min

1,7 min

Side shaft

2 mm module
20 splines
24 splines

5,5 min
6,5 min

1,2 min
1,3 min

Part of front axle

2 mm module
20 splines

5,1 min

0,9 min

Fulcrum shaftFulcrum shaft

2 mm module
22 splines

8,2 min

1,3 min

Driving gear

2 mm module
20 splines

5,1 min

0,9 min

Jackshaft

2 mm module
22 splines

7,0 min

1,2 min

Fulcrum shaft

2 mm module
22 splines

7,5 min

1,3 min

Planetary wheels

2 mm module
14 splines


0,5 min

Total processing time for all parts


168 min

30 min

There are a number of other strong points described below to complement the extra efficiency of the cold spline formation method (6 to 8 times more efficient than milling technology):

  • improvement of the quality of metal structure, as the fibres are stretched along the profile of the surface;
  • increased smoothness of the surface (0.05-0.20 micromillimetres, which is comparable with polishing). For example, Rexrot company (Germany) is switching to the production of cold formed parts without polishing and thus decreasing the price of parts in general;
  • tempering formation is approximately 50% less than during processing done through cutting; - tooling expenses are very little compared with tooling expenses for cutting processing;
  • better loading capability of tooth gearing thanks to the hardness increased by 40-80% at the foot of the tooth and by 20-40% in the cross-section of the tooth;
  • processing accuracy is higher than for milling;
  • saving on materials thanks to the absence of waste in the form of chips (up to 10-15% decrease of the weight of the part);
  • keeping the measurements stable during serial production, since there is no such thing as roller wear.

 

  Technical parameters

 

PARAMETER

Model

 

STI 1923

STI 1926

STI 1927

STI 1930 F3***

Product length, mm.

1300

2030

1300

1300*

Product diameter, mm.

20 - 120

20 - 120

20 - 120

20 - 120

Spline length, mm.

250

250

400

250*

Spline module, mm.

0,5 – 5

0,5 – 5

0,5 – 5

0,5 – 5

Surface roughness        

Forming of matererial up to,

N/mm2 (HV 464 / HB 441 / HRc 46)

1200 1200 1200 1200
Liquid limit (exceeding) 10% 10% 10% 10%
         

Namber of splines

* minimum
* maximum

12
48

12
48

12
48

4
98

Work cecle of machine                 


Revolution frequency of rollers, rev/min  

Частота вращения накатных роликов об/мин.
* for rolling method
* for division method

1800
900

1800
900

1800
900

1800
 

Regular feeding of rear mandrel,mm/min

* minimum
* maximum

40
240

40
240

40
240

 0 – 240
(плавно
регулируемая)

Rapid feeding of rear mandrel, mm/min

2400

2400

2400

15000

Total tngine. kWt.

14

 14

 14

 20

Machine size.mm

*Lenght 
*Width
*Height

3230
2360
2420

3960
2360
2420

3230
2360
2420

3500**
2500**
2100  

*Height of machine cetntres.

1100

1100

1100

1100

Machine weight, kg

10500

12000

10500

11500**

Productions period, months 9 9 9 9
Warranty period, months 24 24 24 24

 

* These values can be customaized by the custumer.

** Machine size and weight  are given with the screening adn can vary.

*** Control systems up to the choce of the custumer.

    Download about Spline forming machines.pdf  (size 576 Kb).

 Products made with a spline forming machine

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